Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1901 to 2000

Universal Time


Introduction

The Moon's orbit is inclined ˜5.1° to Earth's orbit around the Sun. As a result, the Moon’s declination changes rapidly over the course of the draconic month. The extremes in the Moon's southern (or negative) declination ranges from about -18.2° to -28.7°. Similarly, the extremes in the Moon's northern (or positive) declination ranges from about +18.2° to +28.7°.

As its declination changes, so does the azimuth of the lunar rise and set positions along the horizon. When the Moon reaches its minimum or maximum declination, the changing rise an set azimuths halt and reverse direction. This event occurs twice each draconic month and is called lunar standstill.

The gravitational pull of the Sun also forces the moon's orbit to slowly rotate westward on its axis ˜19° per year. In a period of ˜18.6 years, the nodes of the lunar orbit make one complete revolution. The effect on the Moon's declination extremes and lunar standstill points are to change them gradually from month to month.

The monthly declination extremes (and lunar standstills) are further modulated over the 18.6 year precession of the Moon's orbital nodes.

The table below gives the date and time (Universal Time) as well as the Moon's declination for the greatest lunar standstills each year during for the century 1901 to 2000 . For a table of monthly lunar standstills over this century, see Monthly Lunar Standstills: 1901 to 2000 .

The azimuth of the Moon at moonrise depends on the Moon's declination (δ) and the observer's geographic latitude (φ). It can be calculated as follows:

        A = ArcCos (sin δ / cos φ)
        
        where
        
        A = azimuth
        δ = declination of the Moon
        φ = observer's latitude (north +, south -)
        

The azimuth of the Moon at moonset can be calculate by simply subtracting the moonrise azimuth from 360°.

Additional information on lunar standstill is available in Wikipedia

The values of ΔT used to convert Dynamical Time to Universal Time in this 100-year table range from -1 to 64 seconds. The uncertainty in the value of ΔT grows large for dates in the distant past or future.

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1901 to 1920

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1901        Jan 17  12:32   -21.363 +      Jan 03  03:47    21.421 +      
 1902        Jan 07  14:25   -19.893 +      Jan 21  02:44    19.813 +      
 1903        Jan 25  03:30   -18.754 +      Jan 11  19:38    18.806 +      
 1904        Dec 08  14:26   -18.714 +      Dec 23  01:17    18.738 +      
 1905        Dec 26  12:30   -19.654 +      Dec 13  12:37    19.648 +      
 1906        Dec 17  00:06   -21.057 +      Dec 31  01:31    21.080 +      
 1907        Dec 07  10:53   -22.706 +      Dec 21  01:16    22.729 +      
 1908        Dec 24  05:03   -24.369 +      Dec 09  22:13    24.371 +      
 1909        Nov 17  03:09   -25.875 +      Nov 29  20:34    25.875 +      
 1910        Nov 07  02:17   -27.159 +      Nov 19  22:59    27.149 +      

 1911        Oct 27  17:33   -28.101 +      Oct 13  22:31    28.087 +      
 1912        Oct 16  06:17   -28.614 +      Oct 03  07:05    28.621 +      
 1913        Mar 28  22:22   -28.716 +      Mar 16  07:22    28.710 +      
 1914        Mar 18  20:07   -28.541 +      Mar 06  07:08    28.554 +      
 1915        Feb 09  20:32   -27.942 +      Feb 23  23:44    27.944 +      
 1916        Jan 31  05:12   -26.951 +      Feb 13  13:20    26.942 +      
 1917        Jan 20  11:37   -25.652 +      Jan 06  00:55    25.656 +      
 1918        Jan 10  13:45   -24.120 +      Jan 23  08:14    24.099 +      
 1919        Jan 27  22:28   -22.337 +      Jan 13  16:46    22.408 +      
 1920        Jan 17  21:05   -20.719 +      Jan 04  04:57    20.763 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1921 to 1940

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1921        Jan 07  00:46   -19.422 +      Jan 21  06:53    19.331 +      
 1922        Jan 24  17:17   -18.531 +      Jan 11  20:49    18.585 +      
 1923        Dec 09  11:13   -18.980 +      Dec 23  19:00    19.025 +      
 1924        Dec 26  13:22   -20.160 +      Dec 13  01:25    20.158 +      
 1925        Dec 17  01:16   -21.689 +      Dec 30  10:22    21.698 +      
 1926        Dec 07  10:53   -23.349 +      Dec 20  10:28    23.352 +      
 1927        Nov 27  16:23   -24.970 +      Dec 10  11:45    24.967 +      
 1928        Nov 16  14:40   -26.420 +      Nov 29  15:50    26.413 +      
 1929        Nov 06  06:04   -27.577 +      Oct 23  15:23    27.564 +      
 1930        Oct 26  20:05   -28.348 +      Oct 13  23:40    28.356 +      

 1931        Sep 19  07:42   -28.695 +      Oct 04  02:26    28.703 +      
 1932        Mar 28  12:15   -28.692 +      Mar 15  21:43    28.708 +      
 1933        Feb 19  13:26   -28.355 +      Mar 05  12:43    28.362 +      
 1934        Feb 09  22:09   -27.606 +      Feb 23  01:34    27.598 +      
 1935        Jan 31  03:32   -26.504 +      Jan 16  13:37    26.508 +      
 1936        Jan 21  03:24   -25.098 +      Jan 06  15:27    25.113 +      
 1937        Jan 09  23:38   -23.464 +      Jan 23  06:48    23.417 +      
 1938        Jan 27  04:37   -21.656 +      Jan 13  18:42    21.715 +      
 1939        Jan 17  06:48   -20.160 +      Jan 04  06:38    20.199 +      
 1940        Jan 07  16:14   -19.046 +      Jan 22  05:44    18.965 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1941 to 1960

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1941        Dec 18  21:44   -18.589 +      Dec 05  16:14    18.578 +      
 1942        Dec 09  13:24   -19.365 +      Dec 23  07:01    19.409 +      
 1943        Dec 27  14:37   -20.718 +      Dec 13  10:50    20.706 +      
 1944        Dec 16  23:59   -22.320 +      Dec 29  22:36    22.317 +      
 1945        Dec 07  04:37   -23.995 +      Dec 20  02:59    23.992 +      
 1946        Nov 27  02:22   -25.569 +      Dec 10  08:38    25.565 +      
 1947        Nov 16  18:27   -26.910 +      Nov 03  07:57    26.901 +      
 1948        Nov 05  10:15   -27.924 +      Oct 23  15:46    27.933 +      
 1949        Sep 28  23:16   -28.537 +      Oct 13  17:15    28.551 +      
 1950        Sep 19  04:30   -28.710 +      Oct 03  10:34    28.702 +      

 1951        Mar 02  06:31   -28.615 +      Mar 16  01:35    28.624 +      
 1952        Feb 20  15:02   -28.131 +      Mar 04  14:11    28.123 +      
 1953        Feb 09  19:06   -27.251 +      Jan 26  02:58    27.252 +      
 1954        Jan 03  07:11   -26.005 +      Jan 16  06:02    26.018 +      
 1955        Jan 20  10:29   -24.471 +      Jan 06  13:23    24.487 +      
 1956        Jan 10  05:55   -22.798 +      Jan 24  09:03    22.729 +      
 1957        Jan 26  14:15   -21.036 +      Jan 13  18:56    21.098 +      
 1958        Jan 16  23:58   -19.658 +      Jan 04  03:10    19.712 +      
 1959        Jan 07  15:17   -18.733 +      Jan 21  20:45    18.672 +      
 1960        Dec 19  00:47   -18.824 +      Dec 05  03:46    18.805 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1961 to 1980

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1961        Dec 09  16:00   -19.824 +      Dec 22  18:38    19.850 +      
 1962        Dec 27  11:42   -21.313 +      Dec 13  00:20    21.293 +      
 1963        Dec 17  15:41   -22.975 +      Dec 30  18:02    22.972 +      
 1964        Dec 06  13:27   -24.623 +      Dec 20  01:13    24.622 +      
 1965        Nov 26  06:53   -26.119 +      Nov 13  00:10    26.113 +      
 1966        Nov 16  00:48   -27.351 +      Nov 03  07:19    27.359 +      
 1967        Oct 09  15:12   -28.212 +      Oct 24  07:31    28.228 +      
 1968        Sep 28  21:33   -28.661 +      Oct 12  23:41    28.653 +      
 1969        Mar 11  23:46   -28.709 +      Mar 25  14:29    28.718 +      
 1970        Mar 02  07:48   -28.505 +      Mar 15  03:21    28.495 +      

 1971        Feb 20  10:21   -27.865 +      Feb 05  17:03    27.862 +      
 1972        Feb 10  05:54   -26.810 +      Jan 26  21:22    26.822 +      
 1973        Jan 02  14:09   -25.447 +      Jan 16  05:27    25.445 +      
 1974        Jan 19  15:43   -23.833 +      Jan 06  13:23    23.853 +      
 1975        Jan 09  16:59   -22.155 +      Jan 24  07:26    22.079 +      
 1976        Jan 27  09:15   -20.438 +      Jan 14  12:11    20.514 +      
 1977        Jan 17  01:19   -19.214 +      Jan 03  16:47    19.282 +      
 1978        Jan 07  18:52   -18.528 +      Dec 15  08:00    18.509 +      
 1979        Dec 20  02:07   -19.147 +      Dec 05  16:21    19.109 +      
 1980        Dec 09  13:35   -20.357 +      Dec 22  11:48    20.372 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1981 to 2000

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1981        Dec 27  01:24   -21.947 +      Dec 12  20:50    21.930 +      
 1982        Dec 16  23:55   -23.614 +      Dec 30  17:24    23.612 +      
 1983        Dec 06  19:22   -25.224 +      Nov 23  15:53    25.219 +      
 1984        Nov 25  15:45   -26.640 +      Nov 12  22:10    26.646 +      
 1985        Oct 19  07:26   -27.726 +      Nov 02  21:12    27.741 +      
 1986        Oct 09  14:46   -28.438 +      Oct 23  12:40    28.431 +      
 1987        Sep 29  23:46   -28.725 +      Sep 15  17:11    28.717 +      
 1988        Mar 12  00:27   -28.707 +      Mar 24  17:09    28.696 +      
 1989        Mar 02  01:21   -28.322 +      Feb 15  07:55    28.316 +      
 1990        Feb 19  18:57   -27.491 +      Feb 05  13:26    27.503 +      

 1991        Jan 13  01:53   -26.321 +      Jan 26  22:01    26.320 +      
 1992        Jan 02  20:28   -24.871 +      Jan 17  05:09    24.858 +      
 1993        Jan 19  03:58   -23.178 +      Jan 06  09:18    23.210 +      
 1994        Jan 09  13:10   -21.500 +      Jan 23  21:28    21.429 +      
 1995        Jan 27  12:23   -19.887 +      Jan 13  22:36    19.978 +      
 1996        Jan 18  05:35   -18.856 +      Jan 04  03:23    18.933 +      
 1997        Dec 29  10:44   -18.669 +      Dec 14  23:44    18.661 +      
 1998        Dec 19  21:24   -19.574 +      Dec 05  11:02    19.524 +      
 1999        Dec 10  02:50   -20.938 +      Dec 23  10:46    20.950 +      
 2000        Dec 26  09:42   -22.577 +      Dec 12  21:29    22.568 +      

Acknowledgement

All calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Algorithms used in predicting the Moon's lunar standstills are based on Astronomical Algorithms by Jean Meeus (Willmann-Bell, Inc., Richmond, 1998).

Permission is granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by a link to this page and the credit line:

    "Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills Table Courtesy of Fred Espenak, www.Astropixels.com".