Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1601 to 1700

Universal Time


Introduction

The Moon's orbit is inclined ˜5.1° to Earth's orbit around the Sun. As a result, the Moon’s declination changes rapidly over the course of the draconic month. The extremes in the Moon's southern (or negative) declination ranges from about -18.2° to -28.7°. Similarly, the extremes in the Moon's northern (or positive) declination ranges from about +18.2° to +28.7°.

As its declination changes, so does the azimuth of the lunar rise and set positions along the horizon. When the Moon reaches its minimum or maximum declination, the changing rise an set azimuths halt and reverse direction. This event occurs twice each draconic month and is called lunar standstill.

The gravitational pull of the Sun also forces the moon's orbit to slowly rotate westward on its axis ˜19° per year. In a period of ˜18.6 years, the nodes of the lunar orbit make one complete revolution. The effect on the Moon's declination extremes and lunar standstill points are to change them gradually from month to month.

The monthly declination extremes (and lunar standstills) are further modulated over the 18.6 year precession of the Moon's orbital nodes.

The table below gives the date and time (Universal Time) as well as the Moon's declination for the greatest lunar standstills each year during for the century 1601 to 1700 . For a table of monthly lunar standstills over this century, see Monthly Lunar Standstills: 1601 to 1700 .

The azimuth of the Moon at moonrise depends on the Moon's declination (δ) and the observer's geographic latitude (φ). It can be calculated as follows:

        A = ArcCos (sin δ / cos φ)
        
        where
        
        A = azimuth
        δ = declination of the Moon
        φ = observer's latitude (north +, south -)
        

The azimuth of the Moon at moonset can be calculate by simply subtracting the moonrise azimuth from 360°.

Additional information on lunar standstill is available in Wikipedia

The values of ΔT used to convert Dynamical Time to Universal Time in this 100-year table range from 117 to 8 seconds. The uncertainty in the value of ΔT grows large for dates in the distant past or future.

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1601 to 1620

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1601        Jan 02  10:52   -25.093 +      Jan 15  20:29    25.085 +      
 1602        Jan 19  12:59   -23.415 +      Jan 06  05:27    23.440 +      
 1603        Jan 09  13:03   -21.748 +      Jan 24  01:39    21.664 +      
 1604        Jan 27  03:51   -20.100 +      Jan 14  09:11    20.174 +      
 1605        Jan 16  19:10   -19.005 +      Jan 03  15:54    19.069 +      
 1606        Dec 29  05:56   -18.658 +      Dec 15  07:48    18.668 +      
 1607        Dec 19  20:58   -19.472 +      Dec 05  14:38    19.439 +      
 1608        Dec 09  09:05   -20.794 +      Dec 22  07:00    20.809 +      
 1609        Dec 26  22:08   -22.435 +      Dec 12  13:58    22.422 +      
 1610        Dec 16  20:59   -24.104 +      Dec 30  09:16    24.102 +      

 1611        Dec 06  15:38   -25.664 +      Nov 23  06:51    25.667 +      
 1612        Nov 25  10:05   -27.000 +      Nov 12  14:14    27.014 +      
 1613        Oct 18  23:05   -28.011 +      Nov 02  15:40    28.014 +      
 1614        Oct 09  04:22   -28.605 +      Sep 26  01:37    28.594 +      
 1615        Sep 29  13:19   -28.756 +      Sep 15  13:41    28.762 +      
 1616        Mar 11  14:59   -28.681 +      Feb 26  05:17    28.669 +      
 1617        Mar 01  18:46   -28.181 +      Feb 15  00:34    28.189 +      
 1618        Jan 23  05:57   -27.269 +      Feb 05  04:06    27.275 +      
 1619        Jan 12  22:37   -26.006 +      Jan 26  12:33    25.996 +      
 1620        Jan 02  16:41   -24.487 +      Jan 16  21:08    24.465 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1621 to 1640

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1621        Jan 18  22:47   -22.764 +      Jan 06  03:32    22.799 +      
 1622        Jan 09  06:44   -21.120 +      Jan 23  18:50    21.041 +      
 1623        Jan 27  05:14   -19.591 +      Jan 13  21:58    19.679 +      
 1624        Jan 17  23:27   -18.712 +      Jan 04  03:18    18.785 +      
 1625        Dec 29  06:55   -18.893 +      Dec 14  21:19    18.887 +      
 1626        Dec 19  18:24   -19.945 +      Dec 05  06:29    19.898 +      
 1627        Dec 10  00:39   -21.409 +      Dec 23  03:57    21.419 +      
 1628        Dec 26  07:02   -23.074 +      Dec 12  13:29    23.070 +      
 1629        Dec 16  03:42   -24.721 +      Dec 02  22:37    24.724 +      
 1630        Dec 06  00:46   -26.220 +      Nov 23  05:10    26.231 +      

 1631        Oct 29  15:14   -27.440 +      Nov 13  05:23    27.443 +      
 1632        Oct 18  21:35   -28.287 +      Oct 05  14:38    28.272 +      
 1633        Oct 09  06:30   -28.718 +      Sep 25  02:51    28.720 +      
 1634        Mar 22  07:45   -28.784 +      Mar 07  18:53    28.767 +      
 1635        Mar 12  09:59   -28.548 +      Feb 25  15:26    28.554 +      
 1636        Feb 02  19:39   -27.872 +      Feb 15  20:09    27.878 +      
 1637        Jan 22  10:38   -26.818 +      Feb 05  05:07    26.809 +      
 1638        Jan 12  03:59   -25.454 +      Jan 26  13:05    25.430 +      
 1639        Jan 02  03:52   -23.857 +      Jan 16  17:22    23.827 +      
 1640        Jan 19  18:28   -22.089 +      Jan 06  18:42    22.139 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1641 to 1660

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1641        Jan 09  08:00   -20.523 +      Jan 23  04:27    20.454 +      
 1642        Jan 27  10:12   -19.158 +      Jan 13  07:30    19.257 +      
 1643        Dec 12  05:01   -18.546 +      Jan 03  16:03    18.577 +      
 1644        Dec 29  01:54   -19.244 +      Dec 14  16:47    19.225 +      
 1645        Dec 19  08:12   -20.482 +      Dec 05  05:03    20.436 +      
 1646        Dec 09  09:15   -22.028 +      Dec 23  04:27    22.037 +      
 1647        Dec 26  15:37   -23.716 +      Dec 13  13:38    23.718 +      
 1648        Dec 15  15:40   -25.333 +      Dec 02  19:16    25.340 +      
 1649        Nov 08  07:38   -26.730 +      Nov 22  18:26    26.733 +      
 1650        Oct 29  14:49   -27.807 +      Nov 12  10:55    27.792 +      

 1651        Oct 19  23:31   -28.500 +      Oct 05  16:16    28.500 +      
 1652        Sep 11  21:50   -28.769 +      Sep 24  09:50    28.782 +      
 1653        Mar 22  01:00   -28.738 +      Mar 07  07:04    28.742 +      
 1654        Feb 12  09:18   -28.322 +      Feb 25  12:53    28.332 +      
 1655        Feb 01  23:00   -27.505 +      Feb 15  22:02    27.498 +      
 1656        Jan 22  16:12   -26.327 +      Jan 09  18:53    26.321 +      
 1657        Jan 11  16:51   -24.846 +      Jan 26  07:22    24.809 +      
 1658        Jan 02  00:07   -23.183 +      Jan 16  05:33    23.150 +      
 1659        Jan 19  21:06   -21.433 +      Jan 06  03:33    21.501 +      
 1660        Jan 10  10:43   -19.981 +      Jan 23  12:48    19.921 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1661 to 1680

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1661        Jan 27  11:22   -18.794 +      Jan 12  21:24    18.895 +      
 1662        Dec 11  23:34   -18.738 +      Dec 25  02:59    18.741 +      
 1663        Dec 29  14:19   -19.672 +      Dec 15  17:33    19.648 +      
 1664        Dec 18  17:31   -21.048 +      Dec 05  07:22    21.012 +      
 1665        Dec 08  18:24   -22.674 +      Dec 23  03:36    22.684 +      
 1666        Dec 26  06:36   -24.362 +      Dec 13  08:22    24.369 +      
 1667        Nov 19  00:09   -25.902 +      Dec 03  06:48    25.907 +      
 1668        Nov 08  07:54   -27.179 +      Nov 21  23:31    27.168 +      
 1669        Oct 29  16:10   -28.109 +      Oct 15  05:55    28.110 +      
 1670        Sep 22  13:34   -28.638 +      Oct 05  01:20    28.654 +      

 1671        Apr 01  15:46   -28.752 +      Mar 17  23:21    28.754 +      
 1672        Feb 22  22:53   -28.611 +      Mar 07  06:08    28.624 +      
 1673        Feb 11  11:43   -28.051 +      Feb 25  15:09    28.044 +      
 1674        Feb 01  05:16   -27.081 +      Jan 19  11:33    27.074 +      
 1675        Jan 22  07:01   -25.758 +      Jan 09  11:21    25.760 +      
 1676        Jan 12  15:07   -24.187 +      Jan 26  16:48    24.144 +      
 1677        Jan 02  01:16   -22.517 +      Jan 15  12:10    22.485 +      
 1678        Jan 19  23:10   -20.809 +      Jan 05  12:53    20.892 +      
 1679        Jan 10  09:04   -19.490 +      Jan 23  04:12    19.429 +      
 1680        Jan 28  04:43   -18.537 +      Jan 13  19:43    18.620 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1681 to 1700

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1681        Dec 11  11:51   -19.022 +      Dec 25  05:27    19.023 +      
 1682        Dec 29  01:03   -20.156 +      Dec 15  19:50    20.138 +      
 1683        Dec 19  05:39   -21.659 +      Dec 06  07:36    21.637 +      
 1684        Dec 08  10:21   -23.337 +      Dec 22  20:17    23.349 +      
 1685        Nov 28  16:34   -24.983 +      Dec 12  18:26    24.988 +      
 1686        Nov 19  00:39   -26.424 +      Dec 02  11:55    26.415 +      
 1687        Nov 09  08:17   -27.563 +      Oct 25  19:47    27.563 +      
 1688        Oct 02  04:45   -28.340 +      Oct 14  17:16    28.357 +      
 1689        Sep 21  21:47   -28.729 +      Oct 04  21:44    28.729 +      
 1690        Mar 04  12:18   -28.737 +      Mar 17  23:38    28.751 +      

 1691        Feb 22  00:49   -28.443 +      Mar 08  08:16    28.435 +      
 1692        Feb 11  19:10   -27.705 +      Jan 30  04:02    27.694 +      
 1693        Jan 31  22:09   -26.574 +      Jan 19  01:45    26.574 +      
 1694        Jan 22  06:59   -25.138 +      Jan 08  20:00    25.152 +      
 1695        Jan 12  16:45   -23.524 +      Jan 25  21:50    23.483 +      
 1696        Jan 03  00:46   -21.869 +      Jan 15  21:44    21.837 +      
 1697        Jan 19  18:40   -20.222 +      Jan 05  05:48    20.306 +      
 1698        Jan 10  00:27   -19.073 +      Jan 23  04:55    18.997 +      
 1699        Dec 21  16:05   -18.634 +      Dec 08  04:14    18.594 +      
 1700        Dec 11  23:27   -19.390 +      Dec 26  06:59    19.400 +      

Acknowledgement

All calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Algorithms used in predicting the Moon's lunar standstills are based on Astronomical Algorithms by Jean Meeus (Willmann-Bell, Inc., Richmond, 1998).

Permission is granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by a link to this page and the credit line:

    "Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills Table Courtesy of Fred Espenak, www.Astropixels.com".