Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1801 to 1900

Universal Time


Introduction

The Moon's orbit is inclined ˜5.1° to Earth's orbit around the Sun. As a result, the Moon’s declination changes rapidly over the course of the draconic month. The extremes in the Moon's southern (or negative) declination ranges from about -18.2° to -28.7°. Similarly, the extremes in the Moon's northern (or positive) declination ranges from about +18.2° to +28.7°.

As its declination changes, so does the azimuth of the lunar rise and set positions along the horizon. When the Moon reaches its minimum or maximum declination, the changing rise an set azimuths halt and reverse direction. This event occurs twice each draconic month and is called lunar standstill.

The gravitational pull of the Sun also forces the moon's orbit to slowly rotate westward on its axis ˜19° per year. In a period of ˜18.6 years, the nodes of the lunar orbit make one complete revolution. The effect on the Moon's declination extremes and lunar standstill points are to change them gradually from month to month.

The monthly declination extremes (and lunar standstills) are further modulated over the 18.6 year precession of the Moon's orbital nodes.

The table below gives the date and time (Universal Time) as well as the Moon's declination for the greatest lunar standstills each year during for the century 1801 to 1900 . For a table of monthly lunar standstills over this century, see Monthly Lunar Standstills: 1801 to 1900 .

The azimuth of the Moon at moonrise depends on the Moon's declination (δ) and the observer's geographic latitude (φ). It can be calculated as follows:

        A = ArcCos (sin δ / cos φ)
        
        where
        
        A = azimuth
        δ = declination of the Moon
        φ = observer's latitude (north +, south -)
        

The azimuth of the Moon at moonset can be calculate by simply subtracting the moonrise azimuth from 360°.

Additional information on lunar standstill is available in Wikipedia

The values of ΔT used to convert Dynamical Time to Universal Time in this 100-year table range from 13 to -1 seconds. The uncertainty in the value of ΔT grows large for dates in the distant past or future.

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1801 to 1820

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1801        Sep 16  03:51   -28.744 +      Sep 29  07:21    28.747 +      
 1802        Feb 27  04:26   -28.684 +      Mar 11  23:00    28.699 +      
 1803        Feb 17  05:54   -28.261 +      Mar 01  18:55    28.259 +      
 1804        Feb 07  00:38   -27.394 +      Jan 23  17:36    27.380 +      
 1805        Jan 26  15:54   -26.164 +      Jan 13  00:51    26.163 +      
 1806        Jan 16  09:32   -24.671 +      Jan 03  07:36    24.676 +      
 1807        Jan 06  10:04   -23.012 +      Jan 21  00:07    22.959 +      
 1808        Jan 24  01:29   -21.241 +      Jan 11  03:03    21.305 +      
 1809        Jan 13  16:22   -19.817 +      Jan 27  14:50    19.736 +      
 1810        Jan 04  08:40   -18.837 +      Jan 17  19:06    18.793 +      

 1811        Dec 16  15:49   -18.771 +      Dec 29  15:19    18.778 +      
 1812        Dec 06  04:15   -19.723 +      Dec 19  02:38    19.747 +      
 1813        Dec 23  17:15   -21.191 +      Dec 09  13:15    21.160 +      
 1814        Dec 13  16:58   -22.823 +      Dec 27  11:12    22.825 +      
 1815        Dec 03  13:23   -24.485 +      Dec 17  19:08    24.489 +      
 1816        Nov 22  10:37   -26.022 +      Dec 06  23:53    26.016 +      
 1817        Nov 12  11:59   -27.279 +      Oct 30  16:55    27.275 +      
 1818        Nov 02  18:07   -28.163 +      Oct 20  08:07    28.172 +      
 1819        Sep 26  21:00   -28.664 +      Oct 09  20:46    28.668 +      
 1820        Mar 08  21:12   -28.743 +      Mar 21  12:59    28.758 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1821 to 1840

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1821        Feb 26  21:09   -28.586 +      Mar 11  10:16    28.585 +      
 1822        Feb 16  14:00   -27.966 +      Feb 02  10:09    27.950 +      
 1823        Feb 06  03:52   -26.952 +      Jan 23  17:54    26.952 +      
 1824        Jan 26  21:06   -25.616 +      Jan 13  23:51    25.626 +      
 1825        Jan 15  22:06   -24.032 +      Jan 03  02:47    24.048 +      
 1826        Jan 06  06:19   -22.338 +      Jan 20  13:07    22.285 +      
 1827        Jan 24  04:26   -20.626 +      Jan 10  12:37    20.708 +      
 1828        Jan 14  19:55   -19.357 +      Jan 27  23:25    19.289 +      
 1829        Jan 04  10:14   -18.593 +      Jan 17  08:31    18.552 +      
 1830        Dec 16  10:50   -19.089 +      Dec 29  13:12    19.089 +      

 1831        Dec 06  17:23   -20.237 +      Dec 20  02:29    20.257 +      
 1832        Dec 23  02:02   -21.798 +      Dec 09  14:43    21.776 +      
 1833        Dec 13  01:27   -23.473 +      Dec 27  09:54    23.472 +      
 1834        Dec 03  01:35   -25.112 +      Dec 17  13:39    25.107 +      
 1835        Nov 23  04:48   -26.541 +      Nov 10  05:37    26.537 +      
 1836        Nov 12  11:29   -27.649 +      Oct 29  20:47    27.659 +      
 1837        Oct 06  13:52   -28.404 +      Oct 19  10:31    28.410 +      
 1838        Sep 26  17:07   -28.743 +      Oct 09  05:03    28.733 +      
 1839        Mar 09  12:09   -28.734 +      Mar 22  02:24    28.735 +      
 1840        Feb 27  03:22   -28.384 +      Mar 11  08:46    28.367 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1841 to 1860

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1841        Feb 15  16:16   -27.610 +      Feb 02  11:12    27.611 +      
 1842        Jan 09  03:57   -26.462 +      Jan 23  16:12    26.473 +      
 1843        Jan 26  11:29   -25.001 +      Jan 13  16:52    25.021 +      
 1844        Jan 16  20:24   -23.351 +      Jan 03  14:36    23.380 +      
 1845        Jan 06  08:01   -21.684 +      Jan 19  20:13    21.636 +      
 1846        Jan 24  07:33   -20.056 +      Jan 09  22:05    20.153 +      
 1847        Jan 14  19:28   -18.963 +      Jan 27  14:15    18.898 +      
 1848        Dec 25  15:57   -18.654 +      Dec 11  11:20    18.624 +      
 1849        Dec 15  23:03   -19.485 +      Dec 29  15:02    19.480 +      
 1850        Dec 06  02:15   -20.790 +      Dec 20  04:08    20.813 +      

 1851        Dec 23  13:17   -22.439 +      Dec 10  14:36    22.428 +      
 1852        Dec 12  16:37   -24.127 +      Dec 27  02:22    24.124 +      
 1853        Dec 02  21:38   -25.691 +      Nov 19  17:36    25.690 +      
 1854        Nov 23  04:38   -26.993 +      Nov 09  09:17    27.003 +      
 1855        Oct 17  06:16   -27.976 +      Oct 30  00:35    27.983 +      
 1856        Oct 06  08:26   -28.576 +      Oct 18  21:03    28.568 +      
 1857        Sep 26  02:00   -28.730 +      Sep 11  18:46    28.727 +      
 1858        Mar 08  16:42   -28.642 +      Mar 22  02:10    28.625 +      
 1859        Feb 26  05:07   -28.124 +      Feb 13  04:34    28.123 +      
 1860        Feb 15  23:06   -27.187 +      Feb 03  08:26    27.198 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1861 to 1880

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1861        Jan 08  19:53   -25.916 +      Jan 23  06:57    25.912 +      
 1862        Jan 26  11:33   -24.338 +      Jan 13  01:55    24.374 +      
 1863        Jan 16  22:44   -22.675 +      Jan 02  21:48    22.722 +      
 1864        Jan 07  08:28   -21.058 +      Jan 20  05:40    21.012 +      
 1865        Jan 24  04:30   -19.540 +      Jan 09  14:47    19.635 +      
 1866        Jan 14  12:02   -18.666 +      Jan 27  14:33    18.591 +      
 1867        Dec 26  03:49   -18.909 +      Dec 12  14:15    18.875 +      
 1868        Dec 15  09:51   -19.946 +      Dec 29  16:18    19.948 +      
 1869        Dec 05  14:31   -21.392 +      Dec 20  02:21    21.423 +      
 1870        Dec 23  07:31   -23.099 +      Dec 10  07:08    23.098 +      

 1871        Dec 13  14:17   -24.755 +      Nov 30  04:53    24.756 +      
 1872        Dec 02  21:23   -26.214 +      Nov 18  21:38    26.223 +      
 1873        Oct 26  22:01   -27.397 +      Nov 08  14:56    27.404 +      
 1874        Oct 16  23:09   -28.247 +      Oct 29  13:29    28.239 +      
 1875        Oct 06  15:35   -28.683 +      Sep 22  12:05    28.675 +      
 1876        Mar 18  05:58   -28.735 +      Mar 31  19:44    28.718 +      
 1877        Mar 07  18:26   -28.482 +      Feb 22  21:49    28.479 +      
 1878        Feb 25  13:25   -27.780 +      Feb 13  00:26    27.790 +      
 1879        Jan 19  11:36   -26.710 +      Feb 02  20:53    26.705 +      
 1880        Jan 09  19:24   -25.325 +      Jan 23  13:32    25.313 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 1881 to 1900

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 1881        Jan 26  14:01   -23.670 +      Jan 12  07:54    23.730 +      
 1882        Jan 16  21:38   -22.016 +      Jan 02  08:37    22.077 +      
 1883        Jan 07  02:47   -20.459 +      Jan 20  00:15    20.402 +      
 1884        Jan 24  17:36   -19.095 +      Jan 10  15:33    19.168 +      
 1885        Dec 08  00:10   -18.533 +      Dec 22  01:07    18.538 +      
 1886        Dec 25  17:05   -19.246 +      Dec 12  16:23    19.224 +      
 1887        Dec 16  01:38   -20.466 +      Dec 30  12:28    20.483 +      
 1888        Dec 05  10:14   -22.036 +      Dec 19  17:02    22.072 +      
 1889        Dec 23  06:30   -23.757 +      Dec 09  15:26    23.760 +      
 1890        Dec 13  13:34   -25.332 +      Nov 29  09:56    25.338 +      

 1891        Nov 06  13:00   -26.691 +      Nov 19  05:37    26.694 +      
 1892        Oct 26  13:07   -27.771 +      Nov 08  06:10    27.761 +      
 1893        Oct 16  04:46   -28.472 +      Oct 02  05:24    28.459 +      
 1894        Oct 05  16:46   -28.717 +      Sep 22  14:07    28.724 +      
 1895        Mar 18  08:12   -28.681 +      Mar 05  14:47    28.675 +      
 1896        Mar 07  04:28   -28.234 +      Feb 23  16:02    28.245 +      
 1897        Jan 29  03:53   -27.389 +      Feb 12  10:29    27.387 +      
 1898        Jan 19  12:14   -26.186 +      Feb 02  01:21    26.174 +      
 1899        Jan 09  19:28   -24.724 +      Jan 22  18:56    24.711 +      
 1900        Jan 27  10:57   -23.015 +      Jan 12  19:49    23.090 +      

Acknowledgement

All calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Algorithms used in predicting the Moon's lunar standstills are based on Astronomical Algorithms by Jean Meeus (Willmann-Bell, Inc., Richmond, 1998).

Permission is granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by a link to this page and the credit line:

    "Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills Table Courtesy of Fred Espenak, www.Astropixels.com".