AstroPixels Image Licensing Page

All images, diagrams, illustrations and text appearing on are copyright by Fred Espenak, unless otherwise noted. None of this material is in the public domain. The unauthorized use this material is prohibited without written permission. All rights reserved. Please note that all images have been digitally watermarked.

Individual images may be licensed for commercial, editorial, or educational use. In order to license an image for a particular use, the licensee (i.e., the person or organization wishing to use the image) must provide a written agreement describing how and under what circumstances the image may be used. Reproduction rights can be organized into the following categories.

Types of Reproduction Rights

  • Exclusive Rights - gives the licensee the right to reproduce the image for a specific use in a given geographic area for a specific time. The exclusive rights can be broad (e.g., "For all uses worldwide in perpetuity") or narrow (e.g., "For use in a textbook entitled "Modern Astronomy" distributed in the U.S. for a term of three years"). The image may not be licensed for any other uses that would infringe on rights granted by the exclusive license while it is in effect.
  • First Rights - gives the licensee the right to publish the image for the first time in one edition of a publication (e.g., book, newspaper or magazine). No prior publication of the image is allowed and the agreement to limit subsequent licensing for a set time as well. First rights are usually granted for a limited time. Afterwards, the licensee may be given one time rights, and the photographer is free to license the work to others.
  • One Time Rights - non-exclusive rights to publish the image in one edition of a publication. The photographer is free to license the image for other non-competing uses during the license period.
  • Distribution Rights - delineate where the publication or production (e.g., book, magazine, or TV) containing the image may be distributed. These rights are usually defined in terms of language and/or geography (e.g., North America and English Language).
  • Promotion Rights - involve the use of the image to promote the publication or production in which they are reproduced.
  • Electronic Reproduction Rights - covers the use of images on the Internet, electronic media, (e.g., CD's or DVD's), television and other electronic media. Manipulation or modification of the original image is strictly prohibited and violates copyright.
  • Buyouts - complete transfer of all rights from the photographer to the buyer, including copyright ownership. Buyouts are NOT available for any images or material on

Quotes for Image Use

The following information should be provided for a quote on image usage:

    Print Media
    • Reproduction Rights (described above).
    • Publication type - book, magazine, newspaper, poster, etc. (images may not be used or incorporated into logos or company letterhead)
    • Reproduction size (e.g. - 1/4, 1/2, full page, two page).
    • Image placement (e.g. - front/back cover or interior use).
    • Number of copies to be printed or circulation.
    • Language rights requested.
    • Geographic region requested (e.g. - North America).
    Video and CD-ROM
    • Reproduction Rights (described above).
    • Describe use (commercial, educational, etc.).
    • Number of copies to be printed or circulation.
    • Language rights requested.
    • Duration or term of use.
    Web Page
    • Reproduction Rights (described above).
    • Describe use (commercial, educational, personal, etc.).
    • Placement of photo (main or secondary page).
    • Size of photo (pixels).
    • Term or length of time used.
    • Number of hits on page.
    • Image use on the Web must include embedded copyright caption, images may not be edited or modified except for re-sizing, and they must include a link to

Contact Information

For inquiries, quotes and more information, please contact Fred Espenak.